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Ibyo wamenya ku rugendo rwo guteranya indege za Airbus (Amafoto na Video)

0 13-01-2021 - saa 11:02, Cyril Ndegeya

Niba waba warigeze gufata urugendo rwo mu kirere, ni inshuro zingahe waba wararangije urugendo rwawe uzi ubwoko bw’indege yagutwaye? Hari umubare munini w’abantu badakunda kubyitaho, aho kuri bo icyangombwa ari ukugera iyo bagiye gusa nta kindi.

Kuri wowe ukora ingendo zo mu ndege rero ntihabuze inshuro runaka waba waragenze mu ndege zo mu bwoko bwa Airbus dore ko ziganje cyane mu zitwara abagenzi hirya no hino ku Isi.

Uyu munsi rero ngiye kubaganirira ku bijyanye n’uburyo indege iteranywa aho ndi bwibande ku ziteranywa n’uruganda rwa Airbus, nka rumwe mu zikomeye zikora indege zitwara abantu muri rusange, ariko igihe nikigera tukazaganira no ku ruganda rwa Boeing dore ko ari narwo rukuru urebye igihe zombi zimaze zikora.

Muri iyi nkuru ndibanda ku bijyanye n’aho ibyuma by’ingenzi bigize indege bikorerwa cyangwa bituruka. Hari abantu bumva uruganda rwa Airbus rukorera mu Bufaransa bakagira ngo icyo gihugu nicyo kinakora ibikoresho byose bigize indege ariko si ko bimeze.

Airbus ni umushinga cyangwa uruganda ruhuriweho n’ibihugu bitandukanye byo mu Burayi byishyize hamwe buri gihugu kikagira ibyo gikora bikenerwa mu guteranya indege, n’ubwo hari n’ibidakorerwa mu Burayi, hanyuma uruganda rwo kuziteranya arirwo Airbus rwo rukaba mu Mujyi wa Toulouse mu Majyepfo y’u Bufaransa ndetse rukaba ari narwo runini ku Isi mu zikora indege za gisivili n’ubwo rukora n’iza gisirikari.

Ibyo bihugu n’ibikoresho biturukayo nibyo tugiye kurebera hamwe muri make.

Ubundi mbere na mbere mwamenya ko uru ruganda rwavutse mu Ukuboza 1970 bigizwemo uruhare n’ibihugu by’u Bufaransa, u Budage ndetse n’u Bwongereza ndetse na Espagne.

U Budage

Muri iki gihugu harimo inganda nyinshi zifite ibyo zishinzwe muri Airbus ariko nibanze ku ruganda rwa Hamburg ari narwo rukora icyo twakwita umurizo (tail section), igice gishinze ku gace k’inyuma k’indege

Aha mu Budage kandi hari urundi ruganda ruri ahitwa Bremen narwo rukora bimwe mu bice bigize amababa y’indege bizwi nka High lift Systems. Ni ukuvuga ko amababa aturuka Broughton mu Bwongereza aho akorerwa akabanza akajyanwa Bremen mu Budage kugira ngo afungwemo ibyo bice bindi (flaps, ailerons, slats, spoilers) noneho ibaba rikaba riruzuye rikabona koherezwa ahazateranyirizwa indege.

Urundi ruganda ruri ahitwa Stade (soma Shitada) mu Budage narwo rukora igice cyitwa Vertical stabilizer (bakunze kwita "Tail") ari nkacyo benshi bakunze kwita umurizo w’indege.

U Bufaransa

Muri iki gihugu hari urundi ruganda ruri ahitwa Saint-Nazaire mu majyaruguru y’u Bufaransa rukora igice cy’imbere n’icyo hagati bizwi nka "Forward section" na "Center section" ariko ibyo byose bigize icyitwa fuselage.

Urundi ruganda rwa Airbus ruri ahitwa Nantes nirwo rukora agace gasongoye gapfundikiye izuru ry’indege kitwa Radome ari ko kabamo antenne ipima ikirere indege iri kuganamo bityo abapilote bakamenya uko imbere hameze n’uko bahitwara.

Uru ruganda rwa Nantes kandi runakora ibice biba ku mababa byitwa Ailerons by’indege za A330 na A380 ndetse bagakora n’ibice byinjiza umuyaga muri moteri byitwa inlets byo ku ndege za A350XWB (Extra Wide Body) , A380 na A320 Neo (New Engine Options).

U Bwongereza

Uruganda rwaho ruri ahitwa Broughton rufite abakozi bagera ku 6500 narwo ruzwiho gukora amababa y’indege nyinshi za Airbus mbere yo koherezwa i Toulouse mu Bufaransa aho ahurira n’ibindi bice bigize indege bikahateranyirizwa.

Aya mababa atwarwa n’indege zidasanzwe za Airbus Beluga zishinzwe gutwara ibikoresho by’indege zigiye guteranywa uretse amababa ya Airbus A380 anyuzwa mu bwato kuko ari manini cyane adashobora gukwirwa muri iyo ndege.

Urundi ruganda Airbus ifite mu Bwongereza ruri ahitwa Filton, ahahoze urwitwaga Bristol Aeroplane Company ari naho hahoze hateranyirizwa Indege za Concorde zatunzwe gusa n’u Bwongereza ndetse n’u Bufaransa.

Uru ruganda rwa Airbus Filton rushinzwe cyane cyane gukora za design (kwerekana uko igikoresho kizaba giteye n’imikorere yacyo). Ibi babikora ku mababa, ibijyanye n’inzira z’amavuta y’indege (fuel systems) ndetse bagakora na design ya biriya byuma amapine y’indege aba afunzeho byitwa Landing gears.

Espagne

Haba uruganda ruri ahitwa Getafe rukora ibyitwa Horizontal stabilizers ku ndege zose za Airbus. Ni ibyuma biba ku gice cy’inyuma cy’indege wagereranya n’amababa mato ariko bifite izindi nshingano zihariye zitandukanye n’amababa asanzwe y’indege kuko aribyo bituma indege itumbagira ikareba hejuru cyangwa ikareba hasi.

Ku bindi bikoresho bikenerwa ku ndege twavuga nk’amapine, akunze gukorwa n’inganda ebyiri z’ibanze arizo Michelin yo mu Bufaransa ndetse na GoodYear yo muri Amerika.

Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika

Ahitwa Mobile muri Leta ya Alabama naho Airbus yahafunguye uruganda ruteranya indege zo mu bwoko bwa Airbus A320 ndetse na Airbus A220 kugira ngo ibashe guhaza isoko ry’ingendo z’imbere mu gihugu bitewe n’uko Amerika ari igihugu kinini cyane.

Iki gihugu kiri mu bifite inganda nziza zikora moteri z’indege, uruzwi cyane muri Amerika ni urwa GE Aviation rukomoka ku rundi rwitwa General Electric rukomeye cyane.

GE Aviation rukorera muri Leta ya Ohio ahitwa Evendale, indege za Boeing 747, 767, 777 na 787 zikoresha izi moteri za General Electric.

Urundi ruganda ruzwi muri Amerika ni Pratt & Whitney rukorera ahitwa East Hartfort muri Connecticut; ruzwi cyane mu kwambika moteri zarwo indege nka Airbus A320 Neo na A220 ndetse na zimwe mu ndege za Embraer zo muri Brésil zikoresha izi moteri.

Urundi ruganda ni CFM International rukora moteri za CFM nk’umushinga uhuriweho n’inganda za GE Aviation yo muri Amerika na Safran Aircraft Engines yo mu Bufaransa.

Uruganda Rolls Royce Holdings rwo mu Bwongereza ruzwiho gukora moteri zambarwa n’indege za Boeing ndetse na Airbus.

Societe Jamco yo muri Amerika nayo iri mu za mbere zikora intebe zo mu ndege cyane cyane iza Airbus A350XWB (Extra Wide Body).

Canada

Mu 2018 Airbus imaze kugura imigabane myinshi muri Bombardier Aerospace yari isanzwe ari uruganda rukora indege za Bombardier ruri ahitwa Mirabel-Quebec, zimwe mu ndege rwakoraga zari zariswe C- zaje guhindurirwa izina zitwa Airbus A220 bitewe n’uko ziri zeguriwe Airbus.

Ni indege nziza zikora ingedo zo mu turere (Regional flights) ndetse na hano muri Afurika zarahageze kuko Sosiyete y’abaturanyi Air Tanzania ifite ebyiri z’ubu bwoko.

Ibi nibyo nabashije kubegeranyiriza ngo mubashe kumva urugendo rukorwa kugira ngo indege ibashe guteranywa ibone kuguruka. Mu gusoza nababwira ko nk’indege ya Airbus A350 akazi ko kuyiteranya gashobora kumara nk’amezi abiri cyangwa atatu gusa birumvikana ko iyo minsi itangana ku ndege zose.

Airbus A330 ya Germanwings ikoza amapine ku kibuga cya Zaventem i Bruxelles / Ifoto: Cyril Ndegeya
Airbus A330 ya RwandAir ni uko iteye munsi hayo / Ifoto: Cyril Ndegeya
Airbus A350 ku kibuga cya Schiphol / Ifoto: Cyril Ndegeya
Amapine ya Airbus A330 n'ibyuma afunzeho / Ifoto: Cyril Ndegeya
Ibaba rya Airbus A350 mu ruganda rwa Airbus Broughton mu Bwongereza aho akorerwa / Ifoto: Airbus
Uruganda ruteranyirizwamo indege rwa Toulouse mu Bufaransa / Ifoto: Airbus
Uruganda rwa Airbus ruri ahitwa Mobile muri Alabama / Ifoto: Cyril Ndegeya
Uruganda rwa Airbus ruri Stade mu Budage / Ifoto: Airbus
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