IGIHE

Amerika yacyuye umunyu nyuma y’imyaka 20 imaze muri Afghanistan; iherezo ryo kwigira umupolisi w’Isi ryaba ryegereje?

0 3-05-2021 - saa 10:12, Muhonzire Sylvine

Kuva mu myaka irenga 60 ishize, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zarwanye intambara zitandukanye mu buryo budahagarara. Ngiyo muri Korea, Vietnam, muri Iraq ubugira kabiri, muri Afghanistan, Libya na Syria. Muri izi ntambara zose, iki gihugu cy’igihangange cyabashije gutsindamo imwe rukumbi ya Iraq mu 1991, izindi zose yarazitsinzwe cyangwa se bikarangira bisa naho habayeho kugwa miswi.

Muri Afghanistan ho Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zihamaze imyaka igera kuri 20 kuko zahinjiye mu mwaka wa 2001. Iyi ntambara ya Afghanistan hamwe n’indi yamaze igihe kirekire ya Vietnam yahereye muri 1955 ikaza gusozwa muri 1975, hombi Amerika ntabwo yigeze ihegukanira intsinzi kuko ingabo zayo zakomeje kujya zimyiza imoso.

Amerika yapfushije umubare w’ingabo munini; 58.318 baguye muri Vietnam, naho 2.312 muri Afghanistan. Ni mu gihe intambara hagati ya Korea zombi yapfiriyemo abasirikare ba Amerika basaga 40.000, naho iya Iraq igwamo abarenga 7000.

Iyi mibare y’abasirikare ba Amerika bagwa mu ntambara iki gihugu kigenda gishoza ku migabane itandukanye ishobora gutera bamwe muzunga kubera uburyo itubutse. Hari n’abakwibaza niba iki gihugu aha hose gishya cyarura iki.

Kuva nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi mu 1945, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zisanze ari cyo gihugu rukumbi kitashegeshwe mu bihugu byari bikize icyo gihe, isigarana ubudahangarwa bwo ku kigero gisendereye. Kuva ubwo yatangiye kwitwara nk’umupolisi w’isi, na n’ubu rukigeretse.

Amerika ni rwivanga

Ntiwabara za coups d’état zabaye ku migabane itandukanye bigizwemo uruhare na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika kuva mu myaka ya za 1950. Ntiwanabara kandi ibikorwa byo kwivanga muri za politiki zo mo imbere mu bihugu bitandukanye bikunze kuranga iki gihugu, amatangazo y’urudaca cyohereza hirya no hino kigamije gutanga amasomo atandukanye.

Ibi byiyongera ku nkambi za gisirikare zirenga 50 Amerika ifite hirya no hino ku isi, ku buryo ari ho yakuye akazina ko kwitwa "Umupolisi w’Isi". Gusa ibihe biha ibindi kuko aho bigeze burya butakiri buno. Bigeze aho Amerika itangiye kwahagira ku buryo igenda icisha macye ku mpamvu tuza kugarukaho.

Mu mpera za 2020 nibwo hatangiye guhwihwiswa ko uwahoze ari Perezida wa Amerika, Donald Trump yari agiye gutahukana ingabo za Amerika ziri muri Afghanistan, Iraq na Somalia.

Donald Trump wakunze kugaragara nk’ufata ibyemezo ahubutse ahanini kubera kutarya indimi no kutagira icyo atinya kuvuga, yatangaje ko impamvu ashaka kuzihakura ari uko bitwara amafaranga menshi kandi nta musaruro bitanga. Uku ni ukuri.

Miliyari 2260$ niyo yakoreshejwe na Amerika mu myaka 20 ingabo zayo zimaze muri Afghanistan

Miliyari 2260 y’amadolari y’Amerika [miliyoni imwe y’amadolari ingana na miliyoni 994 z’amanyarwanda] ni ko kayabo kakoreshejwe mu ntambara yo muri Afghanistan yatangiye mu 2001 ubwo urugaga rw’ingabo z’amahanga ziyobowe n’Amerika zahirikaga ku butegetsi Abatalibani nyuma y’igihe gito umutwe wa Al Qaeda wari ufite icyicaro muri Afghanistan ugabye ibitero muri Amerika.

Mu kubasha kumva neza ubwinshi bw’aka kayabo Amerika yatwikiye muri Afghanistan mu ntambara itigeze yungukamo n’ikuta na rimwe, wavuga ko ziriya miliyari 2260$ ziruta umusaruro mbumbe [GDP] w’u Butaliyani, yikubye hafi kabiri umusaruro mbumbe wa Espanye, ni hafi ¾ by’umusaruro mbumbe w’u Bufaransa.

Raporo yakozwe na Kaminuza ya Brown University’s Watson Institute na Boston University’s Pardee Center, igaragaza uburyo mu myaka 20 ingabo za Amerika zimaze muri Afghanistan, iki gihugu cyahindutse ibagiro ry’abantu kuko hapfuye abagera ku 241.000 bazize intambara. Harimo abasivile 71.344, abasirikare bo muri Afghanistan 78.314, Abanyamerika barenga 2000 ndetse n’abarwanyi batavuga rumwe na leta 84.191.

Mu ntangiriro z’uku kwezi nibwo perezida wa Amerika, Joe Biden, yavuze ko abasirikare b’igihugu cye bari ku butaka bwa Afghanistan bazaba bashizeyo bitarenze tariki 11 Nzeri uyu mwaka, ubwo hazaba hashize imyaka 20 Amerika yinjiye muri iki gihugu.

Mu bigaragara nta musaruro ugaragara iyi ntambara yatanze, kuko icyo yari igamije (gutsinda abataliban) kitagezweho, ahubwo icyabaye ari ugutakaza akayabo k’amadolari kuri Amerika ndetse igahitana ubuzima bw’abantu, yaba abasivile, abasirikare ndetse n’intagondwa.

Nubwo nta musaruro ugaragara watanzwe n’iyi ntambara Amerika yo ivuga ko icyo yashakaga cyagezweho.

Biden yagize ati “Ntabwo iyi ntambara yari igamije kuzaba iy’ibisekuru. Twaratewe. Twagiye mu ntambara dufite intego zumvikana. Kandi twazigezeho […] igihe kirageze ngo dusoze iyi ntambara yanze kurangira.”

Reuters ivuga ko izi ntego zagezweho Biden yavugaga hano ari uko ingabo z’igihugu cye zabashije kwica umuyobozi mukuru wa Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden mu 2011.

Nubwo Biden avuga ko izi ntego zagezweho, ni ukwihagararaho no kwikura mu isoni kuko intego nyamukuru yajyanye abasirikare ba Amerika muri Afganistan atari ukwica Umuyobozi wa Al-Qaeda gusa ahubwo ari ugutsinda burundu abataliban.

Ibintu bitigeze bibaho na rimwe, ndetse inzobere zigaragaza ko ubu aribwo Abataliban bafite imbaraga kurusha uko bari bameze mu 2001 ubwo Amerika yabakuraga ku butegetsi. Aho bafite abarwanyi bagera ku bihumbi 85 kandi bakagenga kimwe cya gatanu cya Afghanistan.

Ingabo za Amerika zizatangiye kuva muri Afghanistan tariki ya mbere Gicurasi, nkuko byemejwe mu masezerano Amerika yagiranye n’abataliban mu 2020.

Biden yavuze ko igihugu cye kizakomeza gufasha Afghanistan mu gihe hakomeje ibiganiro by’amahoro hagati y’ingabo za leta n’umutwe w’intagondwa z’abataliban.

Umuvugizi w’umutwe w’abataliban, Zabihullah Mujahid, yavuze ko nta biganiro by’amahoro umutwe wabo uzitabira kugeza ingabo z’amahanga zose zivuye muri Afghanistan. Ati “Amasezerano niyubahirizwa, ibibazo bizakemuka, natubahirizwa ibibazo biziyongera.”

Mu bintu byingenzi bituma Amerika ikiyoboye isi muri iki gihe harimo kuba yarigize umupolisi w’isi, aho yohereza ingabo zayo hirya no hino ku isi mu butumwa butandukanye, kenshi yita ubwo kugarura amahoro.

Mu 2016 yari ifite ingabo mu bihugu 138 ku isi, mu gihe 2017 yari ifite ingabo ibihumbi 200 mu bihugu 170 ku isi. Ubu ingabo za Amerika ziri mu butumwa hirya no hino ziri hagati ya 150.000 na 200.000 mu bihugu birenga 150.

Iherezo ryo kwigira umupolisi w’Isi

Kuva ku ngoma ya Barack Hussein Obama yahereye mu mwaka wa 2008 kugera muri 2016, Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zasaga n’izimaze kuzahazwa n’intambara z’urudaca, zitangira gushyira imbere politiki yo gucyura ingabo zikurwa muri Irak ndetse no kuzigabanya mu bindi bihugu. Donald Trump yakuriyeho nawe aza ashimangira iyi politiki kuko yakuye ingabo mu bihugu birimo na Syria, ndetse we yanagaragazaga ko igihe cyo kuba Amerika yagira ingabo hirya no hino ku Isi cyarangiye.

Perezida Joe Biden nawe yaje akomeza iyi politiki y’abamubanjirije, atungurana mu kwezi gushize atangaza ko ingabo z’Amerika muri Afghanistan zizataha zose uko zingana bitarenze uyu mwaka.

Uku gukomeza gukura ingabo zayo hanze zitahuka muri Amerika ni kimwe mu bimenyetso ko iki gihugu kiri mu nzira yo kugabanya ubukana cyari gisanzwe gifite mu kwitwara nk’umupolisi w’isi.

Ku rundi ruhande ariko, Amerika imaze imyaka itari micye isa n’iri kurangwa n’intege nke mu mibanire n’ibihugu by’amahanga, aho usanga kuvuga rikijyana yahoranye bisigaye bigenda bigerwa ku mashyi.

Ibi kandi biniyongeraho kuba Amerika isigaye irangwa n’ibibazo by’urudaca mu gihugu hagati birimo ubwicanyi, irondaruhu, ubukungu bujegajega n’ibindi bisigaye bitera abanyepolitiki bo muri kiriya gihugu kumva neza ko hageze kwita ku bibazo byo mu rugo kuruta uko bahora batatanyiriza imbaraga mu bibazo byo mu mihana.

Uko byamera kose, kutitwara nk’umupolisi w’Isi kw’Amerika kuzongera amahoro ku Isi ku buryo hatabaho irindi sibaniro risa n’irimaze igihe kitari gito muri Libya, Irak, Afghanistan cyangwa Syria.

Biteganyijwe ko ingabo za Amerika zizaba zashize muri Afghanistan tariki 11 Nzeri 2021
Iherezo ryo kwigira umupolisi w'Isi rya Amerika riregereje
Intambara ya Amerika n'Abataliban muri Afghanistan, Amerika yayitakajemo abasirikare barenga 2000
Mu ngoma eshatu zose, yaba iya Obama, Trump na Biden, Amerika yagiye igabanya abasirikare bayo mu bihugu by'amahanga aho kubongera nk'uko byahoze
Ubu nibwo Abataliban bafite imbaraga kurusha ikindi gihe cyose cyabayeho kuva mu 2001 Amerika yabavana ku butegetsi
Kwamamaza
Kwamamaza

Izindi nkuru wasoma

Kwamamaza

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

AMATEGEKO AGENGA IYANDIKA RY'IGITEKEREZO CYAWE
Kwamamaza