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Uko byagendekeye Nturo ya Nyirimigabo, Umunyarwanda wa Mbere wafungiwe muri “1930”

0 12-08-2021 - saa 08:01, Dufitumukiza Salathiel

Abamenye Kigali mu myaka ishize, bazi ko munsi y’uruganda rwa Sulfo hahoze Gereza ya Nyarugenge (ubu yimuriwe i Mageragere). Benshi bayitaga “Dix-neuf cent trente” abandi bakivugira saa moya n’igice kubera umubare 1930 wanditseho usobanuye umwaka yubatswemo.

Ni gereza ifite umwihariko wo kuba ari yo ya mbere yubatswe n’Ababiligi mu Rwanda, ikagira n’igisobanuro gikomeye mu mateka y’igihugu kuko yafungiwemo Umunyarwanda wa mbere wanze kwemera ibarura ry’amoko ryari bushingirweho hatangwa indangamuntu bitaga “ibuku”.

Izo ndangamuntu zari zikubiyemo amoko atatu: Hutu,Tutsi na Twa yahawe Abanyarwanda hagendewe ku bipimo by’uburebure, amazuru n’ibyo batunze.

Hari ku ngoma y’Umwami Yuhi V Musinga, ubwo Ababiligi bazaga gukoloniza u Rwanda rukuwe mu maboko y’Abadage. Bahageze batangiye icyo bise amavugurura ashingiye ku bushakashatsi, aho abarimo Musenyeri Classe bavuze ko kugira ngo baruyobore neza bagomba kwifashisha Abatutsi.

Mu ibaruwa Musenyeri Classe yandikiye Resida Mortehan ku wa 27 Nzeri 1927, yavuze ko ikintu bashobora gukora kugira ngo bateze imbere u Rwanda ari ukwifashisha imbaraga z’urubyiruko rw’Abatutsi, kuko bazi ubwenge, bazi gutegeka kandi baba bashaka kumenya ibivuye i Burayi.

Nyuma y’imyaka itatu yanditse indi isa n’imwihanangiriza ko “ikosa rikomeye Abategetsi b’Ababiligi bakwikorera bakarikorera n’Abanyarwanda ryaba ari ukuvana Abatutsi ku butegetsi”.

Bavugaga ko ubwoko bw’Abatutsi ari bwo bazifashisha gutegeka neza igihugu bene cyo bakabumvira.

Bamaze kwemeranya kuri icyo, hakurikiyeho gushaka uburyo bwo kumenya Abatutsi bagatandukanywa n’ubundi bwoko.

Muri rubanda rw’Umwami abari basanzwe bitwa Abatutsi bari abayobozi bo mu nzego nkuru nk’abatware b’ingabo, abiru n’abacamanza ndetse n’abatunze amashyo. Abahutu babaga ari abakora imirimo yiganjemo ubuhinzi kandi badatunze amashyo. Ni mu gihe abatwa bari abakora imirimo iciriritse nk’ubuhigi n’ububumbyi.

Hari ingero z’ababaye Abatwa nyuma bakaza kuba Abatutsi ku ngoma ya Cyami kubera kuva mu cyiciro kimwe bakagera mu kindi, barimo na Busyete wamenyekanye cyane.

Ubushakashatsi bw’Ababiligi mu kumenya Abatutsi bwo bwaje butandukanye aho kurebera ku butunzi rubanda rufite bafata n’ibipimo by’uburebure, bareba igihagararo n’amazuru.

Umututsi yagombaga kuba afite metero imwe na sentimetero 80 kuzamura mu bijyanye n’uburebure, akaba afite igihagararo ndetse atunze amashyo.

Habaga ubwo utunze izo nka utagejeje ku burebure busabwa ukitwa Umuhutu, cyangwa wageza ku burebure nta mashyo utunze ukangirwa kwitwa Umututsi.

Ibarura ryo kubashaka ryatangiriye i Nyanza mu Majyepfo y’u Rwanda, ahari umutware wo mu Kabagari (ubu ni mu Ruhango) witwaga Nturo ya Nyirimigabo.

Nturo ya Nyirimigabo yariteye utwatsi aryamaganira kure kuko yari yamaze kubona ko ari ugucamo ibice Abanyarwanda bari basanzwe bunze ubumwe, ni ko kumushyira mu gihome cyari kimaze iminsi cyuzuye, aba uwa mbere ufungiwe muri “Dix-neuf cent-trente”.

Bivugwa ko yamaze imyaka isaga ibiri muri iyo gereza, afunguwe asanga ibarura ryararangiye hakurikiyeho gutanga indangamuntu zigendanye n’ubushake bw’Ababiligi.

Iyo nkundura uwo mutware yamenyekaniyemo cyane yarwanywe n’abatware, ingabo na rubanda rw’Umwami Musinga rwashakaga kumushyigikira.

Indangamuntu zimaze gutangwa habaye ikibazo gikomeye bamwe mu bava indi imwe bahabwa ubwoko butandukanye. Umwami na rubanda rwe banze kubishyigikira ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga baraganzwa, amoko aba ahamye atyo.

Umwe mu bariho muri iyo myaka, Gashara w’i Kamonyi yigeze gutangaza ko mukuru we yagizwe Umututsi kuko yari atunze inka zirenga 10 ariko we n’abandi bavandimwe be bagirwa Abahutu kuko bari bafite nke harimo n’abatagira n’imwe.

Ibyo ngo byatumye batangira kubona uwo mukuru wabo nk’udahuje na bo kuko bamufataga “nk’uwisumbukuruje”.

Mu 1931 ni bwo Musinga yaciwe kubera uko yari yarakomeje gutambamira Ababiligi muri izo gahunda zo gucamo ibice Abanyarwanda, himikwa umuhungu we Mutara III Rudahigwa wari wemeye kugendera byifuzo byabo.

Umuhanga mu by’amateka, Rutikanga Bernard Noël, mu 2018 yabwiye The New Times ko abakoloni bashakaga ko abakolonijwe bubahiriza amategeko babaha, bakaba barubatse gereza bagira ngo uzabangamira umurongo wabo bajye bamushyiramo.

Yagize ati “Kugira ngo ubukoloni [bwabo] bukorwe neza, hubatswe gereza.”

Gereza ya 1930 ijya kubakwa byavugwaga ko ari uburyo bushya bwo guhana bwari busanzwe i Burayi kuko mu Rwanda ho uwakoraga ibyaha yacibwaga ibihano birimo kuriha ibyo yangije, kuririmbwa mu bitaramo bamunnyega, gucibwa n’umwami akajya ishyanga, cyangwa akicwa iyo yabaga yagambaniye igihugu cyangwa yishe.

Gereza imaze kuzura si uko byakozwe, ahubwo yafungiwemo abanze kugendera ku mategeko y’Abazungu cyangwa abashatse kubitambika.

Nturo ya Nyirimigabo ni we wabimburiye abandi rugikubita ariko icyo yarwaniye ntiyakigezeho. Bivugwa ko yitabye Imana azize iza bukuru kuko n’ubundi iyo ntambara yayirwanaga ari mu busaza.

Ubu gereza ya 1930 yimuriwe i Mageragere, aho yahoze Kiliziya Gatolika igiye kuhubaka Katederali igezweho ya Arkidiyosezi ya Kigali.

Nturo ya Nyirimigabo ni we wabaye Umunyarwanda wa mbere wafungiwe muri Gereza ya 1930
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