IGIHE

Kuki Ababiligi batifuzaga ko Abanyarwanda benshi batura mu mijyi?

0 29-12-2020 - saa 10:19, Ferdinand Maniraguha

Imyaka isaga ijana irashize mu Rwanda hubatswe umujyi wa mbere ariwo Kigali, waguwe mu ntege mu minsi yakurikiyeho n’indi mijyi nka Butare, Rubavu (Gisenyi), Musanze (Ruhengeri) na Cyangugu.

Nubwo imyinshi muri iyi mijyi itanga icyizere kuri ubu kubera ibikorwa by’iterambere bikomeje kuyikwirakwizwamo, mu myaka ijana ishize ubwo yashingagwa siko yari imeze, ndetse imwe yari inkambi, insisiro cyangwa udusantere tudashinga twabonwaga na bamwe nk’utw’igihe gito.

Byinshi mu bihugu bya Afurika byagiye bikolonizwa n’Abanyaburayi, ikintu bagiye bashyira imbere ni uguteza imbere imijyi no kuyishishikariza abaturage gakondo bari bamenyereye kwibera ku misozi. Icyakora, inyandiko zitandukanye z’amateka zigaragaza ko mu Rwanda atari ko byagenze by’umwihariko nyuma y’uko Abadage birukanywe mu gihugu guhera mu 1916 bagasimburwa n’Ababiligi.

Igitabo ’Ibitaramo ku mateka y’u Rwanda’ cya Zephrin Kagiraneza kivuga ko Ababiligi bamaze kugera mu Rwanda batigeze bashaka guteza imbere imijyi cyane.

Bageze mu Rwanda umujyi ugaragara uhari ari Kigali ariko nayo nta bidasanzwe yari ifite uretse inzu ya Richard Kandt, Umudage wahoze ari na Rezida w’u Rwanda.

Mu gihe Abadage bamaze mu Rwanda kandi, bashinze inkambi za gisirikare zitandukanye mu gihugu. Aho bagiye bazishingaga, Kagiraneza agaragaza ko ariho nyuma hagiye haba imwe mu mijyi u Rwanda rufite ubu.

Mu Ruhengeri inkambi bayihashinze mu 1903, Gisenyi bayihashyira mu 1907, Kigali ihajya mu 1908, Gatsibo ihashyirwa mu 1913 naho muri Cyangungu bayishinga mu 1914.

Izo nkambi za gisirikare zagendaga zikurura ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe nk’ubucuruzi bw’ibyo abasirikare babaga bakeneye, bigatuma bamwe batangira kuhatura.

Abadage bamaze kugenda, Ababiligi ntabwo bashyize imbaraga mu gukundisha Abanyarwanda kujya mu mijyi, bitandukanye n’uko babikoze mu bindi bihugu nka Congo Mbiligi.

Kagiraneza mu gitabo cye yagize ati “Ababiligi ntibigeze bashaka guteza imijyi imbere. Abanyarwanda bavaga mu giturage bakajya mu mijyi babasoreshaga inshuro eshatu z’umusoro usanzwe. Nk’umujyi wa Kigali, mu 1916 wari utuwe n’abantu batarenze 700 barimo abakora mu bucuruzi, abazungu bane, abarabu nka 60, n’abaswahili nka 350.”

Uko kudakunda ko Abanyarwanda bava mu byaro bajya mu mijyi, Ababiligi ngo baba barabisabwe n’abamisiyoneri. Kubera ko imijyi yabagamo abayisilamu benshi, Abamisiyoneri ngo bumvaga ko nibemerera abantu benshi kujya mu mijyi bashobora kuzahinduka Abayisilamu, Idini ya Islam igakwira mu Rwanda, Kiliziya igatakaza abayoboke.

Baba Abanyagatolika n’Abaporotestanti kandi barwanyaga ko Abanyarwanda abenshi bahinduka abayisilamu. Bimwe mu byatumaga babirwanya harimo umuco w’abayisilamu wo kuba kuzana abagore benshi ntacyo bitwaye, ikintu batifuzaga kuko byari bihabanye n’inyigisho zabo, bigahura n’ibyari bisanzwe mu muco Nyarwanda byo guhagarika kandi abamisiyoneri aribyo bashakaga guca.

Leta nayo yagiye ikora ibishoboka byose ngo Abayisilamu bature ukwabo bativanga n’abaturage basanzwe. Nko muri Kigali bashyiriweho inkambi yabo mu Biryogo, izindi zishyirwa Rwamagana, ku Gisenyi, Cyangugu n’ahandi.

Mu mwaka wa 1956 nibwo Inama Nkuru y’igihugu iyobowe n’Umwami Mutara II Rudahigwa yakuyeho izo nkambi, itegeka ko Abayisilamu bavangwa n’abandi baturage.

Ababiligi bashatse uburyo bwo gukomakoma abashakaga kujya gucururiza mu abahaga hafatwa nk’imijyi, babaremera amasoko bazajya bacururizamo bakahubaka amaduka. Mu mwaka wa 1940 nibwo ayo masoko yatangiye kubakwa ageze ku icumi, atuma abashaka guhahirana babona aho guhahira bitabagoye kandi batiriwe bajya mu mijyi.

Mu nyandiko ya Dalmasso Etienne na Pierre Sirven bise ‘La Sous-Urbanisation et les villes du Rwanda et du Burundi’, bavuga ko ahanini ahagiye hazamuka imijyi mu Rwanda habaga hari ibindi bikorwa by’iterambere nk’ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni, ibikorwa by’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, ubucuruzi n’ibindi.

Kubera kudashishikariza Abanyarwanda kugana imijyi cyane, u Rwanda rwabonye ubwigenge mu 1962 Umujyi wa Kigali utuwe n’abatarenze 5000.

U Rwanda rwabonye ubwigenge Umujyi wa Butare ariwo urimo ibikorwa byinshi by’iterambere ariko Kigali ihabwa amahirwe menshi kuko wari umujyi uri hagati.

Nubwo nyuma y’ubwigenge hashyizwe imbaraga mu guteza imbere twa dusantere n’ahahoze inkambi zikavamo imijyi, Sirven na Dalmasso bagaragaza ko kugeza mu 1984 nibura 3.5 % by’Abanyarwanda aribo bari batuye mu mijyi. Bitandukanye no muri Congo kuko muri icyo gihe 50 % by’abaturage bari batuye mu mijyi.

Abo banditse bavuga ko ubwiyongere bw’abaturage mu mijyi yo mu Rwanda ahanini butagiye buterwa n’imbaraga Leta yashyiragamo mu kubibashishikariza ahubwo byaturukaga ahanini ku igabanuka ry’ubutaka bwari butunze Abanyarwanda benshi, urubyiruko rukajya mu mujyi nk’uburyo bwo kujya gushaka imibereho.

Mu 1990, Umujyi wa Kigali wari wihariye 61 % by’abari batuye mu mijyi icyo gihe. 30 % by’abakozi ba Leta bose babaga muri Kigali, 75 % by’ibigo by’imari niho byabarizwaga, 60 % by’imodoka zari mu gihugu na 60 % byinganda.

Mu 2007, Kigali yari yihariye 44 % by’abakozi ba Leta bose, 50 % by’ibikorwa by’abikorera n’inganda. Mu mashuri makuru na za Kaminuza byari mu gihugu, ane muri atandatu yari muri Kigali. Kuko ariho hari amahirwe, benshi mu barangiza Kaminuza bagumaga muri Kigali bashakisha imirimo.

Mu cyerecyezo 2050, byitezwe ko u Rwanda ruzaba rutuwe n’abaturage basaga miliyoni 22, barimo 70% bazaba batuye mu mijyi bavuye kuri 18.7 % batuye mu mijyi kuri ubu.

Mu kubigeraho imijyi yo mu Rwanda yagabanyijwemo ibyiciro bitanu birimo Umujyi wa Kigali, imijyi itatu igaragiye Umujyi wa Kigali, imijyi umunani yunganira uwa Kigali, imijyi 16 iciriritse y’uturere n’imijyi mito (santeri) 73.

Umuhanda uciye imbere ya Serena ni uko wari umeze mu myaka ya za 60. Ni wo wa mbere wubatswe muri uyu Mujyi
Isoko ryo mu Mujyi wa Kigali mu myaka ya 60 naryo ni uku ryari rimeze. Hakurya ni Kimisagara itaraturwa n'umuntu n'umwe
Mu Kiyovu ni uku hari hameze...nta nzu washoboraga kuhabona n'imwe
Mu Mujyi rwagati kuri Ecole Belge mu nzira werekeza kuri CHUK ni uku hari hameze
Kimihurura y'ubu n'iyo muri iyi myaka nta huriro na rito. Hamwe ni imiturirwa ahandi hari ibihuru
I Mburabuturo ahari icyicaro cya Kaminuza y'u Rwanda, icyo gihe wari umusozi wambaye ubusa
Ifoto yo hejuru: Ni inyubako ya mbere Kiliziya ya Sainte Famille iyo munsi ni urugo Abapadiri bayo babagamo
Ifoto yafashwe mu 1918 igaragaza kwa Richard Kandt
Nyuma y'ubwigenge Umujyi wa Kigali wagiye uturwa cyane biturutse ku bantu benshi bazaga kuwushakamo imibereho biganjemo urubyiruko
Umujyi wa Kigali umaze kuba ubukombe haba mu iterambere, mu isuku no kubahiriza ibidukikije
Biteganyijwe ko mu mwaka wa 2050 Abanyarwanda bangana na 70 % bazaba batuye mu mijyi
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